Jessica's research focuses on uncertainty reduction, coarse-graining and collective computation in nature and their role in the origins of biological space-time--that is, the evolution and development of hierarchical structure with multiple, functionally significant time and space scales.
Jessica and her colleagues study a wide range of collectives, from group of cells forming neural tissue, to groups of macaques forming animal societies, to groups of online gamers forming virtual societies.
Components, whether cells or individuals, extract regularities from their interaction histories with other components and use these regularities to tune their strategies. How components extract these regularities and use them to make predictions is an open question. Preliminary data suggest components can extract regularities by coarse-graining (taking averages over the microscopic behavior, e.g. Flack & de Waal, 2007; Flack, 2012; Flack et al, 2013) or compressing their interaction histories (e.g. Daniels 2012).
The extent to which a coarse-grained or compressed variable is a good predictor of the fast dynamics depends of course on how much regularity there is at the microscopic level, how much agreement there is among components in their estimates of the average behavior, and also on how quickly changes at the microscopic level can percolate up. A close coupling between scales allows for agile response to change but reduces predictive capacity over longer time frames. On the other hand, timescale separation between the aggregate or macroscopic properties of the system and the microscopic behavior can result in lock-in to a constructed environment that is suboptimal. The challenge for the system is to find the adaptive degree of coupling between microscopic and coarse-grained variables. Systems that have mechanisms for searching over the space of optimal couplings can be said to be computing with multiple timescales (Flack et al. 2013). A large chunk of Jessica's research program is devoted to the search for biologically grounded algorithms that describe how systems composed of competitive components efficiently and robustly identify optimal couplings and other macroscopic properties (Flack and Krakauer, 2012; Flack, 2012).
Of course in social systems at all scales of biological organization there are multiple components interacting and simultaneously coarse-graining. Hence of interest are the collective consequences for social structure of many components searching for regularities and modulating their strategies in response to perceived regularities. Jessica and her colleagues are developing novel computational techniques (Inductive Game Theory) for extracting strategic decision-making rules, game structure, and potentially strategy cost, from time-series data (Dedeo, Krakauer, Flack, 2010; Flack & Krakauer, 2012, Lee et al, in prep). Using the extracted strategies, Jessica and her collaborators construct probabilistic social circuits that map the microscopic behavior to the target macroscopic properties. They then applied biologically principled dimension reduction techniques to the circuit to uncover its logic and build an effective theory for the target macroscopic property. You can read more about this work here.
Key concepts that capture the themes in Jessica's research projects include computation in nature and endogenous coarse-graining, collective cognition and behavior, probabilistic social circuits, micro to macro, uncertainty reduction, developmental dynamics and the causes of multiple time-scales, conflict and conflict management, robustness, major transitions and niche construction, and the role of information and communication in biology and social evolution.
With two colleagues--David Krakauer and Nihat Ay, Jessica is writing a book on robustness, causal networks, and experimental design that will be published by Princeton University Press.
Jessica Flack is Co-Director of the Center for Complexity and Collective Computation in the Wisconsin Institute for Discovery at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Jessica received her BA with honors from Cornell University in 1996, studying anthropology, evolutionary theory, and biology. She received her PhD from Emory University in 2004, studying animal behavior, cognitive science, and evolutionary theory. For the next eight years she was in residence at the Santa Fe Institute, first as a Postdoctoral Fellow and then as Research Professor, and finally as Professor. She moved to the University of Wisconsin, Madison in 2011. Jessica’s research has empirical and theoretical components and sits at the interface of evolutionary theory, pattern formation, behavior, cognitive science, computer science, information theory, and statistical mechanics. Although most of her work now is of a computational nature, she has spent thousands of hours collecting large behavioral data sets, including highly resolved time-series, from animal societies, and she conducted the first behavioral knockout study on social systems. In that study, she designed an experiment to disable a critical conflict management function—policing—to quantify its role in social system robustness in an animal society. In addition to peer-reviewed publications, Jessica enjoys writing popular science articles and book reviews. Her work has been covered by other scientists and science journalists in many publications and media outlets, including the BBC, NPR, Nature, Science, The Economist, New Scientist, and Current Biology.
Jessica's nonacademic interests include swimming (mostly breaststroke or playing around in the ocean or in granite bottomed, crystal clear swimming holes), surfing, backcountry travel, cooking (chiles and super spicy food, gnocchi recipes, curries, moles, pastries, sabayon and custards, apple pie made with 'wealthy' apples and fennel pollen, pan nero, …), gardens and parks, ornamental grasses, conifers (especially those with weeping and irregular forms like Picea pungens weeping blue, Pinus mugo jacobsen, Picea abies cobra, Pinus parviflora tani mano uki, and any Cedrus deodara), tall bearded iris, orchids (esp. Phragmipedium caudatum) art (a diverse bunch: James Turell, Breugel, Andrew Wyeth, Eric Fischl, James Drake, Cindy Sherman, Rick Owens, Joseph Cornell, African art, Walton Ford, Aboriginal art, Balthus, Klee, Klimt, Lucien Freud, Odd Nerdrum, Leonardo DaVinci, Roberto Matta, etc.. ), all kinds of film (e.g. Alien, Duck You Sucker, Bebette's Feast, The Blind Swordsman: Zatoichi, Seven Samurai, 2001: A Space Odyssey, Blade Runner, The Lives of Others, Terminator, The Royal Tenenbaums, Godzilla and Mothra: The Battle for Earth, Tom Ford's A Single Man, Die Hard, The Exterminating Angel, Gosford Park, The Big Gun Down, True Grit--the original and the new one), science fiction, literature (e.g., Tropic of Cancer, Blood Meridian, Suttree, Absalom Absalom!, Sebald's The Rings of Saturn, all of Borges, Ellison's Invisible Man, Lolita, Moby Dick, Carpentier's The Kingdom of this World and Explosion in a Cathedral, Donoso's Obscene Bird of Night, The Mars Trilogy, Tolkien, Hurston's Their Eyes Were Watching God, Baldwin's Tell Me How Long the Train's Been Gone, Beckett's Trilogy), the American west, bourbon & whiskey (right now, High West Campfire and Double Rye), and fashion (Rick Owens, futuristic Marni, fully floral Dolce & Gabbana…). A big sort of odd interest is in people who are naturally empathic and observant. A few of her favorite places are Paia, Big Sur, maybe parts of East Berlin in the summer, Telluride and the Weminuche Wilderness, the Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne River, the Grand Tetons, Corsica, Chang Mai, Tanzania, Venice, Morocco, and all of the desert Southwest, --particularly Santa Fe, NM, which she considers her home. She lives with David Krakauer, three cats, including one Tonkinese cat, and a dog, who are best buddies. She would have one Tonkinese cat for each harpooner and mate in Moby Dick, but for some reason David does not think this is a good idea. . .
Dr. Jessica Flack
Wisconsin Institute for Discovery
330 N. Orchard Street
Madison, WI 53715